Large Language Models
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Industry Game-Changer: Large Language Models (LLMs)

Large Language Models (LLMs) are massive deep-learning models pre-trained on extensive datasets. They utilize transformer architecture, comprising encoder and decoder networks with self-attention capabilities. These models understand text sequences and relationships between words and phrases.


Imagine an LLM as a super-smart program that's like your smartphone's predictive text feature, but on steroids. You type a few words and your phone suggests what you might want to say next. Well, large language models can do that, but on a scale we have never seen before.

To put LLMs in a greater context, they are a segment of a category of AI called “generative AI”. You may have heard this term or even used one of the platforms like DaVinci AI’s image generator. LLMs are also a form of generative AI specifically architected to help generate text-based content based on user inputs.

LLM’s come in many forms, OpenAI / ChatGPT is a good example of one type. It's been trained on tons and tons of text from all over the internet, so it knows a lot about how people talk and write. It can understand what you're saying, follow specific instructions (prompts), and even generate whole paragraphs or stories if you want it to.

Some other examples of Generative AI / LLM models in the market include:


Turing-NLG by Microsoft

A large-scale language model designed to generate human-like text with advanced capabilities such as context-aware responses and coherent dialogue generation. It's trained on a diverse dataset to achieve high fluency and relevance in generating text.

Unique Feature: Turing-NLG is specifically optimized for natural language generation tasks, making it well-suited for applications like chatbots, virtual assistants, and content generation where generating human-like text is essential.



Developed by researchers at Google and Carnegie Mellon University, XLNet is a generalized autoregressive pretraining method that combines ideas from previous language models like BERT and Transformer-XL. It aims to address limitations in capturing bidirectional context and improve performance on various natural language understanding tasks.

Unique Feature: XLNet's permutation language modeling objective enables it to consider all possible permutations of words in a sentence during training, allowing it to capture bidirectional context more effectively than previous models.


T5 (Text-to-Text Transformer)

Developed by Google, T5 is a versatile language model capable of performing a wide range of natural language processing tasks by framing them all as text-to-text problems. It's trained on a large and diverse dataset to achieve high performance across various tasks.

Unique Feature: T5's text-to-text approach simplifies the training process and makes it easier to apply the model to new tasks without requiring task-specific architectures or fine-tuning procedures.


BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers)

Developed by Google, BERT is designed to understand the context of words in a sentence by considering both the words before and after. It's widely used for tasks like sentiment analysis, text classification, and question answering.

Unique Feature: BERT's bidirectional approach allows it to capture the meaning of words based on their entire context within a sentence, leading to more accurate language understanding.

So how do you choose an LLM?

First off, this list is far from all the options out there. Run a quick search, or ask Chat GPT for a list, and you’ll see lots and lots out there. Second, not all LLM’s are general purpose. There are industry, or topic-specific LLMs, like Clinical QA BioGPT from John Snow labs created specifically for healthcare. When selecting an LLM to work with, it is often best to focus on the industry or sector you are targeting. Radiology-GPT from ArXiv, for example, would be a good choice if creating an LLM-based application for radiologists. These models are pre-trained on the area of data you are targeting, so leveraging will get you results faster.

TechFabric’s Radiology AI Copilot application using Radiology LLM

One of the more common use cases for Large Language Models is in customer service. Let's say you have a problem with your internet service, and you need help. Instead of waiting on hold for a human customer service agent, you could chat with a program powered by the LLM. It could understand your problem, ask questions to figure out what's wrong, and then give you helpful suggestions or even walk you through fixing the issue step by step. Unlike standard chatbots, LLM-enabled bots are trained on specific data sets to become “experts” in that area rather than just spitting out predefined answers based on a fixed ruleset.


To get a bit technical, LLMs are based on transformers that undergo unsupervised learning, where they grasp grammar, languages, and knowledge autonomously. Unlike older computer programs that need a lot of help to learn, LLMs can learn on their own, without being told what's right or wrong. They understand how sentences work and the meaning of words all by themselves.

Transformer architecture allows for extremely large models, often with billions of parameters, capable of processing vast datasets from sources like the internet, Wikipedia, or a catalog of millions of parts like a large manufacturer would have.

  • Natural Language Understanding: Large language models excel at understanding and generating human language with remarkable fluency and coherence. This ability enables them to comprehend complex queries, generate human-like responses, and perform a wide range of natural language processing tasks, such as translation, summarization, and sentiment analysis.
  • Versatility: LLMs are versatile and can be fine-tuned to perform specific tasks across various domains, from healthcare and finance to entertainment and customer service. Their flexibility makes them invaluable tools for businesses and researchers seeking to automate tasks, improve productivity, and gain insights from vast amounts of textual data.
  • Generative Capabilities: LLMs can generate novel content, including text, images, and even code, based on patterns learned from vast datasets. This generative capability has numerous applications, from content creation and storytelling to creative design and algorithmic art.
  • Transfer Learning: LLMs can leverage transfer learning, a technique that allows them to transfer knowledge gained from one task or dataset to another. This approach enables faster and more efficient training on new tasks with limited data, reducing the need for extensive manual annotation and accelerating model development.
  • Accessibility: LLMs have democratized access to advanced natural language processing capabilities, empowering developers, businesses, and researchers worldwide to leverage state-of-the-art AI technologies without requiring extensive expertise in machine learning or computational linguistics.
  • Continual Improvement: LLMs benefit from ongoing research and development efforts, leading to continual improvements in their performance, efficiency, and capabilities over time. As researchers uncover new techniques and algorithms, large language models evolve to incorporate these advancements, pushing the boundaries of what's possible in natural language understanding and generation.

To sum it all up, while generative AI and large language models (LLMs) represent a significant leap forward in artificial intelligence, they are game changers in how users access information.  

Basic overview of an LLM model
  • For business, imagine being able to access data across all systems from a single prompt, in natural language. No more hunting through logins and interfaces to find the invoice template, the latest sales report, or a specific customer order. Using an AI / LLM based application, operators simply ask a targeted question and instantly get the answer without having to access any other system or interface.
  • For customers, no more waiting on hold for customer service reps or elongated calls hoping they can access and find the answers. Using an AI-enabled, LLM-based bot, the user can do this from a single prompt and often receive specific answers with greater accuracy than any human rep.  

The key takeaway here is how LLMs are offering unprecedented levels of natural language understanding, generative capabilities, and versatility. Their ability to comprehend, generate, and transfer knowledge across domains and systems has profound implications for industries ranging from healthcare and finance to education and entertainment, making them truly transformative.  

LLM-based tools remove the intrinsic inefficiencies caused by humans needing to access multiple systems to find, or compile, the right data. Whether it’s a customer service representative looking across multiple screens to find customer account information, or the customer themselves looking for accurate answers, the new world of generative AI and LLM models cuts through all the noise like a hot knife through butter.  

In the new world of AI enablement, LLMs help provide end-users access to everything they need from a single prompt, dramatically increasing efficiency with greater accuracy than ever before.

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